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National Library of Medicine Citation Style: NLM Examples

This guide explains and shows examples of how to cite varied resources in the NLM style

How to Format Citations in NLM Style

When writing for publication, always format citations according to the journal’s “Instructions for Authors”.

The citation examples given below suffice for most needs.

Jump to example of:

When the source material does not fit the most common examples, use these other resources provided by NLM:



Print Article with one author

Dossey L. Prayer, medicine, and science: the new dialogue. J Health Care Chaplain. 1998;7(1-2):7-37.


Print Article with more than one author  (List up to three authors.  If more, add and others)

Rastan S, Hough T, Kierman A, and others. Towards a mutant map of the mouse--new models of neurological, behavioural, deafness, bone, renal and blood disorders. Genetica. 2004 Sep;122(1):47-9.


No Author Listed     (Begin citation with the title of the article)

21st century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. BMJ. 2002;325(7357):184.


Organization as Author

Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension. 2002;40(5):679-86.




One Author

Barge FH. Torticollis. Davenport (IA): Bawden Bros; 1979.


More than one Author     (List up to three authors.  If more, add and others.)

Jawetz E, Brooks GF, Melnick JL and others. Jawetz, Melnick, & Adelberg's medical microbiology. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2016


Editor(s)   (List up to three editors. If more, add the phrase 'and others')

MacDonald WP, editor.  Chiropractic peace. Norwalk (IA): Foundation for Chiropractic Education and Research; 2009.  



Yochum TR,  Rowe LJ. Yochum and Rowe's essentials of skeletal radiology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005. Chapter 8, Osteopetrosis; p. 765-771.

Contributed Chapter

Rosner AL. Musculoskeletal disorders research. In: Redwood D, Cleveland CS, editors. Fundamentals of chiropractic. St. Louis: Mosby; 2003. p. 465-496.


Conference Proceedings

Furton EJ, Dort V, editors. Addiction and compulsive behaviors. Proceedings of the 17th Workshop for Bishops; 1999; Dallas, TX. Boston: National Catholic Bioethics Center (US); 2000. 258 p.




Journal Article     

Kaul S, Diamond GA. Good enough: a primer on the analysis and interpretation of noninferiority trials. Ann Intern Med [Internet]. 2006 Jul 4 [cited 2007 Jan 4];145(1):62-9. Available from:


Journal Article with article number, but no page numbers

Cunningham PJ, May JH. Medicaid patients increasingly concentrated among physicians. Tracking Reports [Internet]. 2006 Aug [cited 2007 Mar 20]:Report 16 [5 p.]. Available from:


Richardson ML. Approaches to differential diagnosis in musculoskeletal imaging [Internet]. Version 2.0. Seattle (WA): University of Washington School of Medicine; c2000 [revised 2001 Oct 1; cited 2006 Nov 1]. Available from:


Web Site    

American Public Health Association. Diabetes prevention fact sheet [Internet]. Washington, DC.: American Public Health Association. 2012 December [cited 2017 Apr 27]. Available from:



Adapted from Patrias K, author; Wendling D, editor. Citing Medicine: The NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd edition. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007- [cited 2017 Apr 27]. 

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