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National Library of Medicine Citation Style: Citing OATS

This guide explains and shows examples of how to cite varied resources in the NLM style

Why Cite OATS?

Scholarly papers in clinical sciences frequently report on how care impacted the patient, based on data obtained using Outcomes Assessment Tools and Screens (OATS).   Authors should clearly state which version of the tool they used, and cite its source.  Interested readers will want to  view the tool and find more information about its development and recommended uses.  The development and validation of these tools is usually documented in journal articles or at the developer's website.  

On this page, citations for OATS used at Life West's Health Center are pre-formatted in NLM style for your convenience.  When original sources are not yet identified, alternative information is given.

TIP:  If submitting for publication, double-check that the citation refers to the version used during patient care.

The following OATS were in place at the Health Center as of May  2018. 

The citations were last updated on May 14, 2018.

OATS Citations

On this page

Jump to citation for:

Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire - DASH

General Anxiety Disorder Scale -  GAD-7

Headache Disability Index -  HDI

Lower Extremity Functional Scale - LEFS

McGill Pain Questionnaire (short form)  -  McGill

Migraine Disability Assessment Questionnaire MIDAS see also Peds -  MIDAS

Neck Disability Index - NDI  also known as Vernon-Mior Neck Disability Index

Numerical Rating Scale -  NRS 

Pain Disability Index - PDI

Patient Heath Questionnaire -  PHQ-9

Patient Heath Questionnaire - PHQ-9 Spanish Version for the USA



Roland Morris Low Back Pain and Disability Questionnaire - RM-LB 

Visual Analog Scale -  VAS





Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire DASH

Hudak P, Amadio PC, Bombardier C, and the Upper Extremity Collaborative Group. Development of an Upper Extremity Outcome Measure: The DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand). American Journal of Industrial Medicine 1996; 29:602-608.

Institute for Work and Health. The DASH outcome measure [Internet]. Toronto, ON: the Institute. [cited 2018may10]. Available from:



General Anxiety Disorder Scale - GAD-7

Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JB, Löwe B. A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: the GAD-7. Arch Intern Med. 2006 May 22;166(10):1092-7.

Screener overview [Internet]. New York, NY: Pfizer, Inc.; [cited 10May2018]. Available from:


Headache Disability Index  - HDI

Jacobson GP, Ramadan NM, Aggarwal SK, Newman CW. The Henry Ford Hospital Headache Disability Inventory (HDI). Neurology. 1994 May;44(5):837-42.


Lower Extremity Functional Scale - LEFS

Binkley JM, Stratford PW, Lott SA, Riddle DL. The Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS): scale development, measurement properties, and clinical application. North American Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Research Network. Phys Ther. 1999 Apr;79(4):371-83.


McGill Pain Questionnaire (short form) McGill

Melzack R. The short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire. Pain. 1987 Aug;30(2):191-7.


Migraine Disability Assessment Questionnaire - MIDAS see also Peds MIDAS

Stewart WF, Lipton R, Kolodner K, Liberman J, Sawyer J. Reliability of the migraine disability assessment score in a population- based sample of headache sufferers. Cephalalgia. 1999;19(2):107–114.

Stewart WF, Lipton RB, Whyte J, et al. An international study to assess reliability of the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) score. Neurology. 1999;53(5):988–994.


Neck Disability Index - NDI  also known as Vernon-Mior Neck Disability Index

Vernon H, Mior S. The Neck Disability Index: a study of reliability and validity. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1991 Sep;14(7):409-15. Erratum in: J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1992 Jan;15(1):following table of contents.  


Numerical Rating Scale - NRS 

Johnson C. Measuring pain. Visual analog scale versus numeric pain scale: what is the difference? J Chiropr Med 2005; 4: 43–4.


Pain Disability Index - PDI

Chibnall JT, Tait RC. The Pain Disability Index: factor structure and normative data. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1994 Oct;75(10):1082-6.

Pollard CA. Preliminary validity study of the pain disability index. Perceptual and motor skills. 1984;59:974.

Tait RC, Chibnall JT, Krause S. The Pain Disability Index: psychometric properties. Pain. 1990 Feb;40(2):171-82.


Patient Heath Questionnaire - PHQ-9

Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JBW. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of General Internal Medicine [Internet]. 2001 [cited 2019May10]; 16(9), 606–613.

Screener overview [Internet]. New York, NY: Pfizer, Inc.; [cited 10May2018]. Available from:


Patient Heath Questionnaire - PHQ-9 Spanish Version for the USA

Credit on OATS document: Elaborado por los doctores Robert L. Spitzer, Janet B.W. Williams, Kurt Kroenke y colegas, mediante una subvención  educativa otorgada por Pfizer Inc. No se requiere permiso para reproducir, traducir, presentar o distribuir.

Screener overview [Internet]. New York, NY: Pfizer, Inc.; [cited 10May2018]. Available from:



Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center. PedMidas Tool [Internet].  Cincinnati, OH: the Center; [cited 2018May2]. Available from:



RAND 36-Item Health Survey 1.0 Questionnaire Items [Internet].  Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. [cited 2018May10]. Available from:


Roland Morris Low Back Pain and Disability Questionnaire - RM-LB

Roland MO, Morris RW. A study of the natural history of back pain. Part 1: Development of a reliable and sensitive measure of disability in low back pain. Spine 1983; 8: 141-144.

Disability rating scale for low back pain: US English version of the Roland-Morris disability questionnaire from MAPI 2005 Roland Morris Questionnaire [Internet].  Roland Morris Questionnaire. [cited 2018May10]. Available from: 
[This version has 24 questions.]


Visual Analog Scale - VAS

Scott J, Huskisson EC. Graphic representation of pain.  Pain 1976; 2: 175–84.  

Johnson C. Measuring pain. Visual analog scale versus numeric pain scale: what is the difference? J Chiropr Med 2005; 4: 43–4.

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