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National Library of Medicine Citation Style: Citing Techniques

This guide explains and shows examples of how to cite varied resources in the NLM style

Why Cite Techniques?

Scholarly papers on clinical chiropractic  will report on interventions, including the specific technique(s) and any adjusting instruments used in patient care.   Readers may not be familiar with chiropractic, or they may want more information about the technique.  Citing one or more sources documenting the technique is expected.   The resource can be a journal article, but sometimes a textbook will be the most authoritative source. 

TIPS

  • Cite only the resources you have used
  • If the only book available is "Class Notes", go the notes and transcribe the exact title, author, place of publication, publisher, and date, as is required for any book.
  • When citing  part of a  book, append  referenced pages to the citation.  See NLM Examples tab: Book, Chapter.
  • Search the Index to Chiropractic Literature for relevant articles.
    You might find an article about how the technique is done, or how it was used in a clinical case.

Citations for selected books are given below as a convenience.  Please verify that the edition is the one you used.

The citations were last updated on October 8, 2018.

Technique Book Citations

On this page

Jump to citation for:

Activator 

Chiropractic Biophysics (CBP)

Diversified

Evolutionary Percussive Instrument Corrections (EPIC)

Extremity Adjusting

Gonstead

Integrated Drop-Table

Palpation

Sacro-occipital (SOT)

Toggle Recoil

Special Populations 

Reference Textbooks

Exceptional Situations

 

Citations

Activator

Fuhr A, Fischer RS. The activator method. 2nd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: Mosby/Elsevier; 2009.

Fuhr A. Activator methods chiropractic technique: basic scan protocol. Phoenix, AZ: Activator Methods, Inc.; 1996.
 

Chiropractic Biophysics

Eriksen K. Upper cervical subluxation complex: a review of the chiropractic and medical literature. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004.

Harrison DE, Harrison DD, Haas JW. CBP structural rehabilitation of the cervical spine. Evanston, WY: Harrison CBP Seminars; 2002.

Harrison DE, Betz JW, Haas JW, and others. CBP structural rehabilitation of the lumbar spine. Evanston, WY: Harrison CBP Seminars; 2008.

Harrison DD, Harrison SO. CBP technique. Evanston, WY: Harrison CBP Seminars, Inc.; 2002.

Harrison DE, Harrison DD, Haas JW. Spinal biomechanics for clinicians. Evanston, WY: Harrison CBP Seminars, Inc.; 2003.

Palmer BJ. The subluxation specific, the adjustment specific: an exposition of the cause of all dis-ease. Davenport, Iowa: Palmer School of Chiropractic; 1934
 

Diversified

Bergmann TF, Peterson DH. Chiropractic technique: principles and procedures. 3rd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: Elsevier/Mosby; 2011.

Gatterman MI. Chiropractic management of spine related disorders. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004.

Gatterman MI. Foundations of chiropractic: subluxation. 2nd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: Elsevier Mosby; 2005
 

Evolutionary Percussive Instrument Corrections (EPIC)

Eriksen K. Upper cervical subluxation complex: a review of the chiropractic and medical literature. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004.
 

Extremity Adjusting

Bergmann TF, Peterson DH. Chiropractic technique: principles and procedures. 3rd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: Elsevier/Mosby; 2011.

Gatterman MI, Gatterman MI. Principles of chiropractic: subluxation. St. Louis, Mo.; London: Elsevier Mosby; 2004.

Gatterman MI. Chiropractic management of spine related disorders. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004.

Gatterman MI. Foundations of chiropractic: subluxation. 2nd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: Elsevier Mosby; 2005.

Hearon KG. Advanced principles of lower extremity adjusting. 2nd ed. Boise, ID: Hearon Seminars 1999.

Hearon KG. Advanced principles of upper extremity adjusting. 2nd ed. Forks, WA: Olympic Graphic Arts; 1995.

Hearon KG. What you should know about extremity adjusting. 9th ed. Boise, ID: Hearon Seminars; 2005.

Herbst RW, Gonstead CS. Gonstead chiropractic science & art: the chiropractic methodology of Clarence S. Gonstead. United States: Sci-Chi Publications; 1980.

Hoppenfeld S, Hutton R. Physical examination of the spine and extremities. Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts; 1976.

Plaugher G, Lopes MA. Textbook of clinical chiropractic: a specific biomechanical approach. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1993.

Ruch WJ. Advanced adjusting techniques: chiropractic care for physically compromised patients. Hayward, CA: Life West Press; 2018.

Ruch WJ. Atlas of common subluxations of the human spine and pelvis. Hayward, CA: Life West Press; 2014.
 

Gonstead

Herbst RW, Gonstead CS. Gonstead chiropractic science & art : the chiropractic methodology of

Clarence S. Gonstead. United States: Sci-Chi Publications; 1980.

Plaugher G, Lopes MA. Textbook of clinical chiropractic: a specific biomechanical approach. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1993.

White AA, Panjabi MM. Clinical biomechanics of the spine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1990.

 

Integrated Drop-Table

Thompson technique reference manual. Elgin, Ill.: Williams Healthcare Systems; 1984.

Haldeman S. Principles and practice of chiropractic. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2005.

Harrison DD, Harrison SO. CBP technique. Evanston, WY: Harrison CBP Seminars, Inc.; 2002.

Kapandji IA. The Physiology of the joints: the spinal column, pelvic girdle and head. Edinburgh; New York: Churchill Livingstone; 2008.

Korr IM, Huntwork EH, editors. The neurobiologic mechanisms in manipulative therapy1978; New York: Plenum Press.

Minardi J. The complete Thompson textbook: Minardi integrated systems. 2nd ed. Ontario, Canada: John Minardi; 2014.

Palmer BJ. The subluxation specific, the adjustment specific: an exposition of the cause of all dis-ease. Davenport, Iowa: Palmer School of Chiropractic; 1934.

Pierce WV. Results. Rev. ed. Dravosburg, PA: X-Cellent X-Ray Co.; 1986.

Zemelka WH. Segmental drop adjusting featuring the Thompson technique: Derifield leg analysis, Diversified technique, Gonstead technique. Davenport, Iowa: Multiple Interest Services Corporation; 2004.

 

Palpation

Kapit W, Elson LM. The anatomy coloring book. San Francisco, CA: Pearson; 2014.

 

Sacro-occipital (SOT)

De Jarnette B. Sacro occipital technic, 1984. Nebraska City, Neb.: De Jarnette; 1984.

Gilman S, Newman SW, Manter JT, Gatz AJ. Manter and Gatz's essentials of clinical neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. 10th ed. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis; 2003.

Magoun HI, editor. Osteopathy in the cranial field.  Kirksville, MO: Sutherland Cranial Teaching Foundation, teaching unit of the Cranial Academy; 1976.

White AA, Panjabi MM. Clinical biomechanics of the spine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1990.

 

Toggle Recoil

Eriksen K. Upper cervical subluxation complex: a review of the chiropractic and medical literature. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004.

Palmer BJ. The subluxation specific, the adjustment specific: an exposition of the cause of all dis-ease. Davenport, IA: Palmer School of Chiropractic; 1934.

Strazewski JW. The essentials of toggle recoil (HIO). Davenport, IA: Strazewski; 2018.

 

SPECIAL POPULATIONS

Physically Compromised

Breig A. Adverse mechanical tension in the central nervous system: an analysis of cause and effect: relief by functional neurosurgery. Stockholm; New York; London; Sydney; Toronto: Almqvist & Wiksell international; John Wiley & Sons; 1978.

Foreman SM, Croft AC. Whiplash injuries: the cervical acceleration/deceleration syndrome. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1990.

Harrison DD, Harrison SO. CBP technique. Evanston, WY: Harrison CBP Seminars, Inc.; 2002.

Hoppenfeld S, Hutton R. Physical examination of the spine and extremities. Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts; 1976.

Jackson R. The cervical syndrome. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas; 1978.

Ruch WJ. Atlas of common subluxations of the human spine and pelvis. Hayward, CA: Life West Press; 2014.

Ruch WJ. Advanced adjusting techniques: chiropractic care for physically compromised patients. Hayward, CA: Life West Press; 2018.

Wicke L, Firbas W, Herold C, Schima W, Taylor KC. Atlas of radiologic anatomy. Teterboro, NJ: Icon Learning Systems; 2004.

Pregnancy and Pediatrics

Fuhr A, Fischer RS. The activator method. 2nd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: Mosby/Elsevier; 2009.

Minardi J. The complete Thompson textbook: Minardi integrated systems. 2nd ed. Ontario, Canada: John Minardi; 2014.

 

REFERENCE BOOKS

Bergmann TF, Peterson DH. Chiropractic technique: principles and procedures. 3rd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: Elsevier/Mosby; 2011.

Bogduk N. Clinical and radiological anatomy of the lumbar spine. 5th ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone; 2012.

Clemente CD. Anatomy: a regional atlas of the human body. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health; 2011.

Cramer GD. Basic and clinical anatomy of the spine, spinal cord, and ANS. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby; 2005.

Eriksen K. Upper cervical subluxation complex: a review of the chiropractic and medical literature. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004.

Gatterman MI. Foundations of chiropractic: subluxation. 2nd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: Elsevier Mosby; 2005.

Gillet H. Belgian chiropractic research notes. Huntington Beach, CA: Motion Palpation Institute; 1984.

Haldeman S. Principles and practice of chiropractic. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2005.

Hammer WI, editor. Functional soft-tissue examination and treatment by manual methods. 3rd ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett; 2007.

Kapandji IA. Physiology of the joints: the spinal column, pelvic girdle and head. Edinburgh; New York: Churchill Livingstone; 2008.

Leach RA. The chiropractic theories: a textbook of scientific research. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA; Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004.

Myers TW. Anatomy trains: myofascial meridians for manual and movement therapists. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier; 2009.

Panjabi MM. Biomechanics in the musculoskeletal system. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 2001.

Redwood D, Cleveland III CS, editors. Fundamentals of chiropractic. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2003.

Souza TA. Differential diagnosis and management for the chiropractor: protocols and algorithms 5th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2016.

White AA, Panjabi MM. Clinical biomechanics of the spine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1990.

 

Exceptional Situations

Occasionally, a key reference for technique is a webpage, e-mail communication or other atypical source.  Such a source may not be peer-reviewed or even available to readers.

Citing Medicine  has many examples of such situations.  ICMJE Recommendations discusses usual practice.  See Related Resources.

TIPS:

  • Decide between formally citing an atypical source or treating it as an informal reference.  Informal references are placed  inside parentheses, in the body to the text, ideally with a note explaining its significance.  Note or Acknowledgment section precedes References. 
  • If submitting for publication, refer to Instructions for Authors for any specifications.  With most publishers, written permission to include information from a correspondent is generally a requirement.


Examples of referring to a webpage dedicated to a technique:

Formal formatted reference for a webpage:

 The EPIC experience [Internet]. Clearwater (FL): EPIC Clinics;c2018 [cited 2018 Mar 5].  Available from: http://www.epicclinics.com/

 Informal reference for a webpage integrated within the text, and referring to a brief explanation in the Notes section.

(EPIC Clinics homepage; unreferenced, see “Notes”)


 

Recommended Resources

Examples
Web Links